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What are the different error codes that can be returned by the Modbus Protocol?

The Magelis HMI is showing an error "The PLC equipment has returned error code 0AH". What does this mean?

Product Line:
Vijeo Designer (all versions), Magelis series, XBTGT, HMIGTO, HMIGTU, HMISTO, HMISTU, HMIGK, iPC

When a Magelis HMI is communicating to a Modbus device over Modbus TCP/IP or Modbus RTU, there are serveral different error codes that the PLC may return in the event of an exception. Please see the table below for a description of each possible error code.

The exception codes as explained in the Modbus specification are:
Exception CodeNameMeaning
01 hex)
The function code received in the query is not an allowable action for the server.  This may be because the function code is only applicable to newer devices, and was not implemented in the unit selected.  It could also indicate that the server is in the wrong state to process a request of this type, for example because it is unconfigured and is being asked to return register values. If a Poll Program Complete command was issued, this code indicates that no program function preceded it.
02 hex)
Illegal Data AddressThe data address received in the query is not an allowable address for the server. More specifically, the combination of reference number and transfer length is invalid. For a controller with 100 registers, a request with offset 96 and length 4 would succeed, a request with offset 96 and length 5 will generate exception 02.
03 hex)
Illegal Data ValueA value contained in the query data field is not an allowable value for the server.  This indicates a fault in the structure of remainder of a complex request, such as that the implied length is incorrect. It specifically does NOT mean that a data item submitted for storage in a register has a value outside the expectation of the application program, since the MODBUS protocol is unaware of the significance of any particular value of any particular register.
04 hex)
Slave Device FailureAn unrecoverable error occurred while the server was attempting to perform the requested action.